Symbolized by the Latin character Au, Gold is a scarce metal that bears the atomic number 79, residing somewhere among the higher atomic number elements found randomly in nature. Possessing a typical bright yellow hue with a tinge of red, the dense and pliable metal has served many purposes throughout its documented presence in civilization, including being cast into coins, fashioned into jewelry, and used to support an economic system based on a gold standard. Since 1930, it has failed to mint its way as a circulating form of currency and more recently in 1971, gave way to fiat money. As per estimates unveiled in 2019, Gold holds an estimated 197,576 metric tonnes that exist above ground.
Gold is a product of immense cosmic activity; it is created in the fiery aftermath of supernovae and neutron star collisions, as well as through r-process reactions in nuclear reactors. It can also be found within certain minerals, often alongside tellurium.
Gold is a member of the noble group 11 elements, distinguished by its distinct electron configuration of [Xe]4f145d106s1 and 79 electrons which orbit the nucleus. Further, gold is remarkable for its superior thermal and electrical conductivity, as well its remarkable melting point in relation to other transition metals. At 19.3g/cm3, its density is also quite noteworthy. Finally, it should be noted that the boiling point and melting point of gold are respectively 2856.01K and 1064.43K.
With a delicate yet formidable Mohs hardness of 2.5, Gold stands out as a precious metal unlike any other due to its remarkable properties: high density at 19.3 g/cm3, excellent conductivity of electricity and heat, and a moderately low melting point for a transition metal.
The chemical symbol of Gold is Au – derived from the Latin Aurum – and its atomic number 79, setting it among the higher order elements that naturally occur on Earth. This rare metal is recognisable for its dense, soft, malleable composure and distinct sunny yellow colouration with a faint hint of red. Since history was recorded, Gold has been revered as a precious metal to adorn coins, jewelleries and other trinkets due to its eminent brilliance. A gold standard was once chosen as a major economic policy; however, in the 1930s Gold coins ceased functioning as cash currency and the 1971 abandonment of the world gold standard was followed by a fiat monetary system. As of 2019, a reported 6-digit figure of Gold at 197,576 tonnes remains above-ground.
Created in the scorching cauldrons of supernovae, inspired by the intense crashing of neutron stars, and arising as a result of r-processes in nuclear reactors, gold is rarely found in minerals as a gold compound joined with tellurium.
Rich in hue and celebrity, Gold is indeed a noble metal with a unique chemical electron setup. The configuration of [Xe]4f145d106s1 houses 79 electrons that lay around the nucleus. To touch, gold feels dense and heavy with its 19.3 g/cm3, yet displays a lower melting point than other transition metals. Heat and electricity flow freely at temperatures of 1064.43 K and 2856.01 K respectively, adding to its mystique and practicality.
With a softness of 2.5 on Mohs hardness scale and density of 19.3 g/cm3, gold stands tall as a metal that packs an impressive punch. It melts relatively easily compared to other transition metals, and has the added benefit of excellent conductivity with regards to electricity and thermal properties.
The symbol Au (from Latin aurum) deems a chemical element of atomic number 79 to be identified as Gold. It is a rare and precious metal that has been used since ancient times for currency, jewellery and many other creative ventures. Shining with a slightly reddish-yellow lustre, Gold is a dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal that has been made into the world’s prized commodities. In the 1900s, a gold standard served as a mainstream currency until it was replaced with a non-tangible fiat currency in 1971. As of 2019, statistics say that 197,576 tonnes of gold graces the Earth’s surface.
Undeniably precious, gold is generated from the ultimate end of stellar evolution… formed from the explosive death of supernovae, and created when neutron stars collide. Furthermore, it is uncovered through nuclear reactions as a natural by-product of the r-process, and also detected in its compound form alongside other minerals like tellurium.
Gold, a beloved member of the noble family of Group 11 elements, holds a distinct electron configuration of [Xe]4.